지질시대이론보다 더 젊은 지구의 증거

지질 시대

연대 (년 전)

 

지구 탄생

46억

 

선캄브리아대

① 시생대(Archaeozoic eon)  ☞ 39억년 전 ~ 25억년 전

② 원생대(Proterozoic eon)  ☞ 25억년 전 ~ 5억 4400만년 전

가장 오래된 암석,유독 대기층 형성,지각 형성
태양계와 지구 형성
해서 동물과 연체 생물 출현
해조류

고생대 시작

ⓐ 캄브리아기(Cambrian period) - 5억 4400만년 전 ~ 5억 500만년 전
☞ 1835년 영국의 세지윅(Adam Sedgwick)에 의해 제안된 명칭으로 Wales의 로마식 이름인 Cambria를 의미합니다.

ⓑ 오르도비스기(Ordovician period) - 5억 500만년 전 ~ 4억 4000만년 전
☞ 1879년 랩워스(Charles Lapworth)에 의해 제안되었습니다. 본래 캄브리아기와 실루리아기의 경계를 놓고 세지윅과 머치슨이 대립을 했는데 그 논쟁에 종지부를 찍으면서 사이에 끼워 넣은 시기가 바로 오르도비스기이며 웨일즈 지방의 한 종족인 Ordovices족의 이름을 따서 명명했습니다.

ⓒ 실루리아기(Silurian period) - 4억 4000만년 전 ~ 4억 1000만년 전
☞ 1835년 머치슨(Roderick Murchison)에 의해 남웨일즈쪽 일대에 부여된 이름입니다. 초기 시대를 나누는데 있어 가장 큰 공헌을 했던 사람들이 바로 세지윅과 머치슨이었지요. 이름의 유래는 웨일즈 지방의 한 종족인 Silures족의 이름에서 온 것입니다.

ⓓ 데본기(Devonian period) - 4억 1000만년 전 ~ 3억 6000만년 전
☞ 1837년 머치슨과 세지윅에 의해 제안되었습니다. 모식지인 영국의 데본셔(Devonshire) 지방의 명칭을 따서 데본기라 불렀습니다.

ⓔ 석탄기(Carboniferous period) - 3억 6000만년 전 ~ 2억 8600만년 전
☞ 1822년 영국의 코니베어(William Coneybeare)와 필립스(William Phillips)에 의해 제안된 명칭입니다. 석탄을 포함하는 지층이기 때문에 붙혀진 명칭입니다. 그런데 미국의 경우는 석탄기의 지층을 미시시피기(Misissippian period : 3억 6000만년 전 ~ 3억 2500만년 전)와 펜실바니아기(Pennsylvanian period)로 세분해서 사용합니다.

ⓕ 페름기(Permian period) - 2억 8600만년 전 ~ 2억 4800만년 전
☞ 1841년 머치슨에 의해 명명되었습니다. 우랄 산맥 근처에 있는 러시아의 페름(Perm) 지역의 이름을 따서 붙혔습니다.

많은 생물들이 전멸
파충류, 석탄 숲
산호초, 양서류 출현
폐어, 육상 식물
절족 동물이 바다를 이탈
초기 물고기
해서 무척추 동물 번성

 

팡게아 형성
남반구 빙하
에팔레치아 산맥 형성
원시 대서양이 좁아짐


해양식물 산소 방출

어류의 출현

4억 5천만

 

양서류의 출현

3억 6천만

 

파충류의 출현

3억 2천만

 

중생대 시작

ⓐ 트라이아스기(삼첩기 : Triassic period) - 2억 4800만년 전 ~ 2억 1300만년 전
☞ 1834년 알버티(Fredrich von Alberti)에 의해 명명되었습니다. 독일 중부 지방의 암석이 적색층, 석회암, 그리고 적색층의 세 부분으로 구분된다고 하는 것 때문에 붙은 이름입니다.

ⓑ 쥐라기(Jurassic period) - 2억 1300만년 전 ~ 1억 4500만년 전
☞ 1799년 독일의 험볼트(Alexander von Humboldt)에 의해 명명되었습니다. 스위스와 프랑스의 접경 지역의 Jura 산맥이 모식지라 명명된 이름입니다. 일반인들에게 가장 많이 알려진 이름이기도 하지요?^^

ⓒ 백악기(Cretaceous period) - 1억 4500만년 전 ~ 6500만년 전
☞ 1822년 벨기에의 할로이(Omalius D'Halloy)가 도버 해협 양쪽에 발달한 석회암층에 부여한 명칭입니다. creta는 라틴어로 chalk를 뜻합니다.

공룡과 많은 생명체 사멸
식물, 초기 포유류, 시조새
공룡시대 전개

온화한 기후
지중해 형성, 대륙이 갈라짐
건조 기후

 

신생대 시작

ⓐ 제3기(Tertiary period) - 6500만년 전 ~ 180만년 전
☞ 이태리의 아르듀이노(Giovanni Arduino)가 18세기에 지층을 나눌 때 사용했던 용어를 그대로 사용한 것입니다. 본래 아르듀이노는 지층을 3개의 층으로 구분했습니다.
이 중에서 3번째 암석층의 명칭이 그대로 사용되게 된 것이지요~^^ 흔히 왜 신생대에는 1기와 2기는 없고 제3기부터 있냐는 질문을 많이 하는데 이 정도면 답이 되겠죠?^^

ⓑ 제4기(Quaternary period) - 180만년 전 ~ 1만년 전
☞ 1829년 프랑스의 데스노예르(Jules Desnoyers)에 의해 제안된 명칭입니다. 제3기 다음의 지층이기 때문에 부여되었겠죠?

올드바이 죠지 화석
초원 전개
거대한 포유류
모든 포유류 등장
작은 원시 포유류

 


인류 문화 출현
타르 핏트 동물

유인원의 출현

250만

 

인류 출현

50만

 

 

Fossilized Dinosaur Tracks

One of the longest dinosaur trails in the world composed of some of the finest, most detailed individual tracks known anywhere in the world.

Excavated by Dr. Don Patton beginning on 9 September 2000

The Turnage-Patton Trail

Excavated by Dr. Don Patton beginning on 9 September 2000

Click photos for High resolution

The Texas drought has made new revelations possible. A platform in the Paluxy River bed near Glen Rose, Texas has been exposed by consulting geologist, Dr. Don Patton and volunteer workers, revealing three dramatic trails of dinosaur tracks. The primary trail pictured below consists of 136 consecutive tracks, extending over 400 feet. The prints are deep and incredibly detailed. The work of uncovering and cleaning the trails began September 9th and continued through October 14. It was conducted under the auspices of the Metroplex Institute Of Origin Science and the Creation Evidence Museum.

The leading dinosaur track authorities have acknowledged that they know of no other single consecutive dinosaur trails in North America that are this long. Both the length and the beautifully preserved detail certainly make this one of the finest displays of dinosaur tracks in the world.

The primary trail is finally obscured at the upper end by erosion for a distance of about thirty feet and then the trail appears again for another twenty-one consecutive tracks, making a total of 157 tracks, extending over 500 feet. The upper section actually crosses the famous Taylor Trail. Another trail of twenty consecutive tracks has been uncovered beside the first at the lower end, going in the opposite direction. A third trail of twelve tracks has been found below the first two.

Field notes from investigations of the area in the late seventies indicate that Mike Turnage actually detected the long trail with his feet under several feet of water. In view of this, it has been has determined that this exciting, historic new trail be designated "The Turnage-Patton Trail."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

For the significance of the fossilized ripple marks on the photo above, click here: Ephemeral Markings The fact that such features are preserved in rock demonstrates the necessity of the rapid formation of sedimentary rock.

 

 

The Taylor Trail:
A series of 14 sequential human footprints on the same platform with at least 134 dinosaur tracks.

Introduction:

Here is a photo of the Paluxy River in Glen Rose Texas. This rapidly flowing river runs through the middle of Dinosaur Valley State Park, famous for its dinosaur tracks. Not as well known is the fact that human tracks have also been found, not only in the same formation, but on the same bedding plane and in some cases overlapping the dinosaur tracks.

 

Stan Taylor (pointing at track) began his excavation of the Taylor Trail in 1969 and continued working through 1972. Initially, only two tracks could be seen in the Paluxy River bed. 

 

By following the trail back under the river bank, seven more very human like tracks were exposed. The process involved removing tons of limestone overburden, effectively eliminating the possibility that the tracks were carved.

 

The Taylor Trail, as it normally appears in the river under water. Subsequent excavation has extended the trail to a total of fourteen tracks in a consistent right-left pattern. The entire sequence can be seen through the water in this 1994 photograph, even though a thin layer of mud obscures the details. A trail of three-toed dinosaur tracks can be seen crossing at an angle of approximately 30 degrees.

 

The drought of 1999 revealed

Click on photo for high resolution)

Could the human tracks have been made much later?
Suppose you saw several footprints in a sidewalk and someone said, "This print was made ten years after the one beside it." Would you buy that? No way! We understand that tracks in mud do not last long. To be preserved, they must be solidified rapidly, within days. Once the material hardens, the tracks are preserved and footprints will no longer leave an impression. Furthermore, exposed tracks weather rapidly. Therefore, we know the next layer was deposited immediately and rapidly.

 

The Taylor Trail Photo Gallery:

 

 

 

Thumbnail of Photo

Track Number

Description

 

 

 

-3B

This fossil footprint (-3B) is in the bed of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. It is one of a 14 track sequence called the Taylor Trail. The tracks are consistently 11.5" in length with consistently alternating rights and lefts. They are among and, in this case, withindinosaur tracks.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

-3B

This print is one of the most spectacular in the sequence. When examined carefully a right human foot print can be seen in compelling detail, almost completely within a dinosaur foot print. Click on this picture to highlight the details of these two amazing prints.
(Click on photo for high resolution)

-3B

Click here to see the outline of the dino track, then the outline of where the human stepped partially in the dino track.

 

(Click on photo for high resolution)

-3B

Click here to see an outline imposed on a close up of the toes.
(Click on photo for high resolution)

-3B destroyed once for all time!

-3B

This is one of three tracks featured at the 1989 Dayton, TN creation conference that was destroyed the next day. On August 12, 1989 Dr. Don Patton spoke at a creation conference in Dayton, TN. He presented compelling evidence that both human and dinosaur tracks were present at the Taylor Trail, including the above pictures. Two well known evolutionists were present and at least one was conspicuously disturbed by this presentation. Both flew to Dallas the next morning and went immediately to the Paluxy River. It is reliably reported that they were in the river that afternoon with an "iron bar." Three days before they were in the river the footprint was observed looking like the picture above. Three days after they were in the river, it was observed looking like the picture left. (Clear photography was not possible till the water went down several months later, when this photograph was taken.)

(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

 

 

+6

Top view photo: The 1988 photograph on the left shows a very human-like fossil footprint in the bed of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas, well known for its dinosaur tracks. This left footprint is in a sequence of 14 that are left/right consistent and consistently about 11.5 inches in length. The tracks were excavated from beneath six feet of alternating layers of clay and limestone. The surrounding "mud push up" helps demonstrate authenticity.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

+6

Excellent side view photo: By 1992 erosion revealed that this footprint was directly beside one of 134 dinosaur prints on the same platform. The entire trail of human-like tracks is among, within, across and, in this case, beside 25 inch dinosaur tracks.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

 

 

+5

The +5 fossil footprint as it appears in the bed of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas, famous for its dinosaur tracks. Dinosaur Valley State Park is near by. Here, the 11.5" human-like footprint is superimposed on the heel of a 25" dinosaur track. This right footprint (+5) is followed by a left (+6) which is also 11.5" in length. The right-left pattern is consistent throughout the entire sequence of fourteen 11.5" footprints known as the Taylor Trail 

(Click on photo for high resolution)


with & without foot

+5

Here are two views of the +5 fossil footprint. You can see that it fits an actual human foot!

(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

 

 

 

+3

This fossil footprint (+3) is one of fourteen that make up the Taylor Trail, a sequence of very human-like tracks found with at least 134 dinosaur tracks in the bed of the Paluxy river, near Glen Rose, Texas. The picture on the left shows the track when first excavated, about 1972.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

+3

Sixteen years later erosion had removed a thin veneer of rock and revealed that the track was actually within a dinosaur track that was not visible initially. The dinosaur track is flush with the surface for the most part and slightly redder in color, indicating infill material. When viewed through the water, only the dinosaur track is obvious.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

+3

However, when the water goes down, the human shaped depression can still be seen.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

 

 

+1

This cast was made by Stan Taylor in 1970. It appears to be an impression of one of the fossil footprints (+1) which make a 14 track sequence called the Taylor Trail, found in the bed of the Paluxy River near Glen Rose, Texas. The tracks are consistently 11.5" in length with consistently alternating rights and lefts. There are 134 dinosaur tracks on the same platform.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

+1

This picture of the +1 print, taken in 1988, shows the effect of 18 years of erosion which proceeds rather rapidly after the overlying layers are removed. A chunk has come out of the left side, but the same general shape is seen.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

+1

Prize Track +1 destroyed once for all time!This is one of three tracks featured at the 1989 Dayton, TN creation conference that was destroyed the next day. On August 12, 1989 Dr. Don Patton spoke at a creation conference in Dayton, TN. He presented compelling evidence that both human and dinosaur tracks were present at the Taylor Trail, including the above pictures. Two well known evolutionists were present and at least one was conspicuously disturbed by this presentation. Both flew to Dallas the next morning and went immediately to the Paluxy River. It is reliably reported that they were in the river that afternoon with an "iron bar." Three days before they were in the river the footprint was observed looking like the picture above, right. Three days after they were in the river, it was observed looking like the picture below, right. (Clear photography was not possible till the water went down several months later, when this photograph was taken.)

(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

 

 

 "We missed the boat!"

Taylor Trail Analysis:

By Don Patton Ph.D.

Perhaps the strongest feature of the evidence presented by the Taylor Trail is the fact that it is composed of a sequence of fourteen tracks, consistent in length, in a consistent right-left pattern. Each of the 14 tracks demonstrate, at least, a general oblong human-like shape.

They are amazingly consistent in length. The largest variance from the average is less than 5%. In the sequence of associated dinosaur tracks, length varies as much as 40%. Of course, some of them are still in the process of being "revealed" by erosion.

Individual toes can be discerned in seven of the fourteen tracks. Such detail is unexpected. In Mary Leakey’s Laetoli tracks, one great toe can be distinguished but no individual small toes can be seen.

Left-right distinctions can be made in twelve of the fourteen tracks. Two are simply oblong shapes. When such determinations can be made, they are left-right consistent, with lefts where lefts should be and rights where rights should be.

 

A statistical analysis is represented in the following chart:

 

  No.

Human-Shape

Length

Toes

Left-Right?

L-R Consistent

+6

11"

L

+5

11.5"

R

+4

11.5"

?

+3

11.75"

R

+2

11.75"

0

L

+1

11.75"

R

-1

11.5"

0

L

-2

11.5"

R

-3

11.5"

0

L

-3B

11"

R

-3C

11.75"

?

L

-4

11.75"

0

?

-5

11.5"

?

L

-6

11.75"

0

R

14

14

Av.11.53

7

12

14

The average distance between the tracks is 2.6 feet. If the individual’s proportions were average, a height of 6’ 4" would be indicated. For such an individual, an average distance between steps of 2.6’ is completely normal. Actually, the distance begins about 2 1/2 feet and declines. At ­3B (a standing track) he appears to stop. The heel of the next print is not as far ahead as the toes of ­3B. From that point they begin to lengthen, indicating increasing speed. The greatest distance is between the last prints. With momentum increasing, the longer distances between these tracks is appropriate. When the tracks are dry is is easy for a person of average height to stride from print to print which has been demonstrated on a number of occasions.

Strength Of A Sequence:
Occasionally, one can observe strange things in nature, things that serendipitously resemble other things. You may see a man in the moon or the profile of an old man in a mountain. A cloud may resemble an elephant. This is not unusual. However, a sequence of such things defies credibility. One simply can not believe that a sequence of clouds resembling 14 elephants holding each other’s tail could occur naturally, even if some of them are not perfect. If objective people see four old men in the mountain that resemble presidents, they will not believe the scene was produced naturally by erosion.

 
One "face" may be from erosion…

But four faces are not!

These readily understood examples illustrate the strength of a sequence in terms of evidence. It eliminates the idea of accidental resemblance by natural, unintelligent processes from the sphere of rational discussion. Fourteen tracks in a consistent right left pattern, consistent in length, including several amazingly detailed tracks with all five toes, instep and clearly defined heel, demonstrate conclusively that these tracks are not the product of natural erosion.

 

Ripple Marks
Ubiquitous Rippel Marks, Robert R. Shrock, Proff. of Geology, M.I.T., "Because they are one of the commonest and most widespread of original sedimentary features, they have been described and illustrated in countless reports. ...Ripple marks are preserved in conglomerates, sandstones, and siltstones, and in clastic limestones and dolostones. ...Many examples have been described from rocks of all ages..." SEQUENCE IN LAYERED ROCK, p.93, 95

"Rapid," Edwin D. McKee, "The chief significance of ripple lamination in the geologic record is that it is an indicator of environments involving large and rapid sand accumulation...areas where addition of new sand normally is at a slow rate, have little chance of developing into superimposed ripple lamination... In contrast, areas in which sand accumulates periodically but rapidly, as in river flood plains were sand laden waters of strong floods suddenly lose velocity are very favorable for building up ripple-laminated deposits." Primary Sedimentary Structures and Their Hydrodynamic Interpretation, Society of Economic Paleontologists & Mineralogists, p.107.

 

 

Once formed into rock these ephemeral features would erode rapidly if not covered and protected from erosion. Therefore, not only must these layers be formed rapidly, the subsequent layers must also be deposited very shortly thereafter.

Ripple marks are so common that it has been said, if any bedding plane is followed far enough, ripple marks will be seen. They are in virtually all kind of sedimentary rock.

The implication is that all kinds of sedimentary rock are formed rapidly and so did the layer above it and the one above it and so on. Once this picture develops in our minds, it becomes clear that we are not looking at isolated events separated by long periods of time but a rapid series of events.

 

 

Bird Tracks
Think about it. How long would bird tracks last in the mud? This rock formed before they disappeared!

 

The Upper Taylor Platform (UTP) McFall Trail

 

 

A trail of apparently human fossil footprints in association with dinosaur footprints, was excavated in 1999 in the Paluxy River bed, near Glen Rose, Texas. This new trail on the Upper Taylor Platform, called the McFall Trail, begins about twenty five meters upstream from the Taylor Trail (excavated in the early 70's) and trends in the same direction, offset a couple of meters to the left. It ends where two "perfect human footprints," according to Emmit McFall, were cut out by he and the Wilson brothers in the 1940's.
(Click photo for high resolution)

Originally, lime mud similar to wet concrete, washed over dinosaur tracks and filled them. After the dinosaur tracks were filled, a second set of tracks was made, mostly within the infilled dinosaur tracks. It all hardened into rock which has now been exposed by erosion. The material which filled the dinosaur tracks was more resistant. This differential erosion explains the slightly raised dinosaur tracks.

 

 

Track #4 within dinosaur track with another dinosaur track on the left.

(Click photo for high resolution)

Highlighted details of track #4

Click here for highlighted detail

 

 

Spectacular Track #4 close-up displays all five toes, instep and heel, surrounded by dramatic "mud push-up" typical of real footprints, but not erosion. The depressed print extends into a slightly raised dinosaur track similar to the one just inches to the left. This sequence of tracks displays a right-left pattern and is consistent in length (about 10").

(Click photo for high resolution)

Highlighted details of close-up of track #4

Click here for highlighted detail

 

 

Track #12 of the 15 track human series, is depressed within a slightly raised dinosaur track which is cocked at a slightly different angle. When the foot was pulled out of the infill material, suction left peaked ridges at the front of the human shape, that would not be produced by erosion.

(Click photo for high resolution)

Highlighted details of close-up of track #12

Click here for highlighted detail

 

The Ryals Track

 

 

The fossil footprint seen in these pictures is called "Ryals Track," named for Jim Ryals who removed a beautiful left footprint from the Paluxy River bed back in the 30’s. The resulting hole in the Cretaceous limestone can be seen directly ahead of this right footprint. The track that Mr. Ryals removed was on display for years in the courtyard of Dr. Cook’s medical clinic in Cleburne, Texas.
(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

 

It was suggested that the great toe of the track extended too far forward. We discovered that clay filling the track had not been completely removed. When it was carefully excavated, Dr. Patton's toes fit perfectly back under the limestone. When this was done, the great toe fitting perfectly.

Dinosaur toes which extend back under the limestone, can be seen in some of the hundreds of tracks found in the same layer.
(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

 

When the individual stepped forward it appears that the toes drug, leaving an impression in the now hard limestone. Dr. Don Patton illustrates how these impressions were made. As Dr. Patton stepped forward, his toes naturally fit into the depressions.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

 

Prized Ryals Track destroyed once for all time!  This is one of three tracks featured at the 1989 Dayton, TN creation conference that was destroyed the next day. On August 12, 1989 Dr. Don Patton spoke at a creation conference in Dayton, TN. He presented compelling evidence that both human and dinosaur tracks were present at the Taylor Trail, including these pictures. Two well known evolutionists were present and at least one was conspicuously disturbed by this presentation. Both flew to Dallas the next morning and went immediately to the Paluxy River. It is reliably reported that they were in the river that afternoon with an "iron bar." Three days before they were in the river the footprint was observed looking like the pictures above. Three days after they were in the river, the track was destroyed.

The Morris Track

The Morris Track was found by John Morris in the bed of the Paluxy River, downstream from the Taylor Trail at the Dougherty Site. While some of the detail eroded over a period of months, when it was first discovered, it was described as virtually perfect.

The Burdick Track

 

 

The Burdick Track is in Cretaceous limestone, found near Glen Rose, Texas (famous for it’s dinosaur tracks). Evolutionary theory claims that humans were separated from these dinosaurs by over 100 million years. Naturally, evolutionists must explain this away, so they just say, "It is carved." They don’t need evidence. They know large mammals did not live with dinosaurs, so it must be carved.

This assumption has been disproved by cross-sectioning. Carving would randomly cut across the internal rock structures. However, if those structures follow the contours of the impression, the carving theory would be falsified. Internal structures dramatically conform to the shape of both the heel impression and the great toe impression, demonstrating that this is an original impression in limestone well known for dinosaur prints.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

A large diamond saw is being used to section the track with a view to examining subsurface structures, which would indicate whether or not the track was carved.
(Click on photo for high resolution)

This view of the resulting cross-section at the heel shows subsurface disturbance directly under and conforming to the shape of the heel impression. This track was not carved.

(Click on photo for high resolution)

This is a cross section of the "great toe" of the Burdick track. Again, internal structures conform to the shape of the depression, confirming the authenticity of this track, including the toes. This picture was photographed under black light to emphasize the detail of the internal structure of the rock.
Please note who is "doing science," creationists or evolutionists?
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Jerry Simons used Junior High students to make tracks in wet concrete. They demonstrated that a wide variety of shapes can be produced by normal looking feet.
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This experiment allowed us to examine one set of running tracks coming forward and another going away. While standing prints leave a slanted row of rounded dots at the end of "hourglass" shaped prints, we have demonstrated that running prints have a different set of peculiar characteristics: pronated toes, raised centers, wide anteriors, narrow posteriors, just like the Burdick track.

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When we compare the Burdick track to the one created by our wet concrete experiment, we see a striking similarity. If the Burdick were different it would be wrong. It is a running track which exhibits the characteristics a running track should exhibit.
Please note who is "doing science," creationists or evolutionists?
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Evolutionist's quibbles refuted!

 

The Burdick Track is Genuine!

#1, Burdick Track

The element of subjectivity which is typically necessarily involved in ichnology (the study of fossil footprints) is virtually eliminated by the "perfection" of this track. In fact, it seems the objection heard most often has been, "It’s just too good. It must be carved."

The track was sectioned by Loma Linda University and the results were not definitive. While they reported some structures within the rock which seemed to conform to the surface features of the track, they considered the evidence "equivocal."

Furthermore, it is not "in situ" (in place). It was removed from the original site years ago and now resides in the Creation Evidence Museum. "Exactly where did it come from?"

Since it looked "too good," and the cross-section was not definite and it was not "in situ", the evolutionists were sure that the track was carved.

Early in 1990, the decision was made to do whatever was necessary to either verify or falsify the hypothesis that this was a real, human footprint from the Cretaceous limestone of the Glen Rose Formation (supposedly 110 million years old).

Sectioned Heel

Hastings had contended that man-track claims could be easily evaluated by sectioning the rock to check for pressure structures within the rock beneath the track. Such indications would eliminate the possibility that they were the result of random erosion or carving which would cut across these structures. However, he does not mention that removing tracks from the river bed is forbidden by Texas law nor does he mention that real dinosaur tracks do not always reveal such structures when sectioned. Sometimes pressure structures are recorded; sometimes they are not. Consequently, a failure to find pressure structures would not falsify, yet finding them would verify.

Since the Burdick had already been removed from the river, we arranged for Cordell Van Huse, lapidary expert from Midlothian, Texas, to cut across the heel of the track with a diamond saw.

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A large diamond saw is being used to section the track with a view to examining subsurface structures, which would indicate whether or not the track was carved.

The heel was a more logical location than the ball of the foot, chosen by Loma Linda. Greater displacement of material would occur at the heel where force is concentrated. At the ball of the foot, force is broadly dissipated.

The results were dramatic. The picture speaks for itself. The material directly under the heel had been disturbed by pressure. These contours were not carved!

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#2, Sectioned Heel
This view of the resulting cross-section at the heel shows subsurface disturbance directly under and conforming to the shape of the heel impression. This track was not carved.

Hastings then acknowledged that this procedure established that it was a real track, but contended that it must be a dinosaur track on which someone had carved toes. Of course, there was absolutely no evidence for such a notion, but for an entrenched evolutionist, it was a philosophical necessity.

It is the impression of many that evolutionists do the work of science. Creationists just sit back and believe in spite of the evidence. Please observe that who is doing science and who is "just believing."

Sectioned Toes

Following Hasting suggestion, we determined to section the toe area to see if the toes were real. Since pressure structures are not always visible in large dinosaur tracks, the requirement that we find such pressure structures indicating individual toes, seemed quite a reach, but it did represent a possibility that we determined to pursue. Van Huse, our lapidary expert sectioned across the toes.

Again, the Burdick Track was vindicated, even at the toes. The cross section was photographed under black light so that the structure would shows up more dramatically. Clear, obvious pressure structures can be observed following the contour of the toes, especially at the great toe. There is now demonstrable evidence that even the toes were not carved.

#3, Sectioned Toes

The laminations under the little toe may appear to be the result of pressure, however are more likely algal structure called stromatolites. A number of them can be detected within the matrix of this print, unassociated with the depression made by the print.

Kuban argued that the stromatolites provide proof that the track was carved.

"The algal colonies grow upward in concentric layers that have a tear drop shape. The narrow end of the tear drop points downward. This orientation can be used to deduce the "up" direction of the rock...the print was carved on the bottom of the slab."

Of course, if he can demonstrate that the print is carved into the bottom of the slab rather than the top, he would successfully falsify our hypothesis.

However his claim that stromatolites always grow upward is false and demonstrates his lack of knowledge of stromatolites.

Robert R. Schrock of M.I.T. wrote the book, SEQUENCE IN LAYERED ROCK, from which I was taught at Indiana University. He is perhaps the leading expert on the processes used to determine top and bottom of strata and does affirm that stromatolites can sometimes be used to determine top and bottom of a layer.

"Algal structures of many kinds are to be expected in sedimentary rocks of all ages, and the ones useful as top and bottom criteria usually can be identified without great difficulty.", SEQUENCE IN LAYERED ROCK, p. 293

His statement that "structures of many kinds are expected" and "the ones useful for top and bottom criteria usually can be identified without great difficulty," indicated you have to know which ones can and which ones cannot.

#4, Algal Structure

In Johnson’s book on LIMESTONE BUILDING ALGAE AND ALGAL LIMESTONES, he illustrates a variety of stromatolites built by different species of algae. From these pictures we see that some grow in all directions. They obviously would not be definitive in terms of up and down.

#5 & 6, Algal Structures

Furthermore, some stromatolites are oriented randomly as a result of turbulence, indicative of catastrophic circumstances.

The real "proof of the pudding" in this instance is seen in the randomly oriented stromatolites in this matrix. While randomness is most observable on the side view, it is seen clearly in the view which shows the toes. Obvious examples are indicated by the arrows.

#7, Cross section at toes

In one small area we see three different orientations.

#8, Cross section at toes, close up

Additionally Kuban says:

"The alleged subsurface pressure lines are actually algal structures which often truncate abruptly at the print depression, demonstrating that the print was carved."

If the laminations were consistently truncated, carving would be a possible explanation. Some of the algal structures do appear somewhat truncated. That is the case under the little toe though certainly not the case under the great toe. Here, the contours unmistakably follow the toe depression.

One of the world's leading experts on stromatolites, Harold L. Levin, wrote, "These algae cause the development of stromatolites by trapping fine particles of sediment between the minute filaments of their matlike colonies. The carbonate is temporarily bound within a film of gelatinous organic matter." (Life Through Time p. 39, 1975) When we realize that these fragile structures would offer little more resistance to deformation than the mud itself, we can understand how small features of foot would sink into them (truncate) in some instances. However, the great toe, producing greater displacement, would afford the best evidence and it is definitive.

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#9, Cross section at great toes

 

Load Bearing Pressure Structures

There are additional indications of pressure under the toes. Lambe and Quitman describe the action of load bearing plastic material in their textbook, Soil Mechanics. When the load is concentrated, pressure is exerted downward, outward and upward to form a mustache shaped structure. That is not necessarily what most would expect, it is not intuitive, but it is what we see.

The textbook illustrates with the diagram below.

This phenomenon can be reproduced in computer models. Here the computer depicts half of the predicted structure. The force is exerted downward and its transferred to the plastic medium down and out. This is like putting the foot pressure in the mud.

#11, Text book illustration, computer diagram

The next diagram depicts the ends of a stack of rods. Notice the structure that forms when a load is brought to bear on the rods. When the force is exerted downward the mustache shaped structure is produced directly under and to either side it.

#10, Text book ill., rods

 

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It should also be noted that the structure, the lines of force are dramatically truncated by that which produces the force, analogous to the toes in our circumstances.

Looking back to the cross section of the toe area of the Burdick Track, notice where the pressure is concentrated under this toe by the calcite inclusions. The downward and outward motion producing the mustache shaped structure is seen here, perhaps even more obviously than the textbook illustration. The pressure structure in the rods is more difficult to see.

#12, Cross section at toes, Circled Structured

The close up demonstrates the effect even more dramatically.

#13, Cross Section Structure Close Up

Too Wide?

Once the heel and toes were verified, Hastings then began another tack. "It’s much too wide to be a human track." No documentation was given. He simply asserted it was so.

It just so happened that, about that time, evidence on this point appeared in the March 1990 issue of Natural History (p.63), in the form of an article by Russel H. Tuttle, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Chicago and Affiliate Scientist with the Primate Research Center of Emory University. Dr. Tuttle had been chosen by Mary Leakey to examine the Laetoli footprints from Africa. His article destroys the uninformed objection that the Burdick track is too wide to be a human footprint. In his description of the Laetoli footprints, Dr. Tuttle points out that individuals who habitually go barefoot have significantly wider feet than those whose feet are "deformed" by shoes. He illustrates his point with a picture which compares a habitually barefoot Indian foot with his foot.

#14, Tuttle Toes

Considering the variability of size and shape of the human foot, it is rather ironic that the length to width ratio of the foot in Tuttle’s picture and the Burdick track are almost exactly the same (48%).

Kuban felt compelled to make a response to this evidence, even if it was somewhat irrational.

"Patton also claimed, based on a recent Natural History article (1990) that certain Indian tracks have almost the same length/with ratio as the Burdick print. However this applies only to foot-length/toe-width ratio (since these Indians have well splayed toes)." , Latest Paluxy "Man Track" Claims, (Draft, Revised, Aug. 8, 1989)

These toes are not splayed. That article says nothing about toe width. He appears to have made up a "straw man." I referred to that which was at issue, the width of the foot. The width to length ratio is exactly what Tuttle was talking about and it answers the unsubstantiated objection that The Burdick Track is too wide. The ratios of Tuttle’s example and the Burdick Track match.

Too Long?

The Burdick Track is large (13 1/4") but not outside the range of variation that we see today. Barry’s, a major shoe retailer, based in the Dallas area, provides shoes for many of the large basketball players in America. We took them a cast of the Burdick track, and they confirmed that they have shoes that would fit the foot that made this print. In fact, they revealed that it was similar to Shaqeil Oneal’s foot, though his is slightly larger. His is size 23EEEE. The Burdick track indicates a foot what would wear size 22EEEE.

#15, Don Patton holding Shaqeil Oneal’s shoe

Then, Kuban decided to attack the morphology of this footprint that had been "too good to be true."

"The general shape of the print depression is not that of a genuine human print. ...The print is too wide at the "ball" and too narrow at the heel, giving the print an almost triangular shape overall. The length to ball-width ratio is about 2.0, compared to a typical range of 2.4 to 2.8 for normal, clear human tracks. ...The toe depressions are far too long, and the big toe is too narrow."

So, it is too narrow, too long, too wide. Virtually everything about it is wrong. Of course, he gives no documentation or evidence for his conclusions and normal is just what he says it is.

We can quantify that and determine what is and what isn’t "normal" with information readily available, published in the technical literature.

From the Journal of Forensic Sciences, 1989 we find an article entitled Barefoot Impressions, a preliminary study of identification characteristics of population frequency of their morphological features. It provides scientific answers to the questions, "What is too wide," and "What is too narrow." Very elaborate studies have been done to determine the range of variation of these morphological features.

Regarding toe width to toe length, an issue addressed by Kuban, the average is about 77%. The Burdick track is 58%. This is in the narrow range but well within the observed range of variation. So the statement that it is too wide is just not so. It fits within the range illustrated by the chart. The superimposed arrow indicated the position of the Burdick Track.

#16, length-width Diagram

Then the article presents a chart that describes toe width compared to the ball width. The Burdick Track is at 27%, well within the documented range of variation.

#17, toe width-ball width Diagram

The article also documents the range of heel width to ball width. Regarding this proportion, Kuban said,

"The heel is much too narrow...The ball is much too wide."

The truth is that the Burdick Track is almost right in the center of the documented range of variation. This is not shooting from the hip or wishful thinking. This is documented, scientific evidence.

#18, heel width-ball width Diagram

Then the journal article described the range of variation of ball width in relation to foot length. At 46% the Burdick Track is relatively wide but well within the range of 50 different subjects tested. That is, out of 50 they found several feet that were wider. So Kuban’s reckless pontifications are demonstrated to be worthless.

#19, ball width- foot length Diagram

Kuban also claimed the toes were at the wrong angle. This ratio was also addressed in the article. Various angles are observed and the Burdick Track, at 5%, is virtually average.

#20, Toe angle Diagram

The truth is, many feet are rather strange. I obtained this picture from a podiatrist in Springfield, Missouri. If I were speaking to an audience and asked everyone to take their shoes off and look at each others feet, there would certainly be some who would not do so. We know how our feet look. We see some strange sites. The podiatrist tells me these crooked feet belong to a lawyer which is perhaps appropriate.

#21, Lawyer Feet

Most have not considered the range of variation seen in human feet, much less human footprints.

I have been interested for some time in what tracks look like in the mud. I found some recently on the banks of the Paluxy River at Glen Rose. Whoever made them had disappeared. I don’t know who made them, or when they were made. When I happened upon them, this is the way they looked in the Glen Rose mud.

#22, Tracks in mud

The sequence and general shape would certainly indicate that they were human tracks. Notice, however, that a wide variety of footprint shapes were made by this same individual. By the logic of Hastings and Kuban, this is not possible. A little experience with known human footprints can prove to be very instructive.

One might argue that the footprint on the left couldn’t be a human track. The great toe is at the wrong angle. The one on the right is much too narrow for a human. Isn’t it?

#23 & #24, Tracks in mud

 

The two below are really strange, but made by the same human.

#25 & #26, Tracks in mud

All of this variety is seen in a sequence of about eight tracks. One may say, "Too wide relative to length," or "Too narrow," or "Wrong angle," but they are still human prints and such arbitrary, unsubstantiated, table pounding statements have no place in science. They illustrate the fact that we should not reasonably expect fossil footprints to be perfect and that the real strength of evidence is in the sequence.

Making Tracks

Jerry Simmons was doing work on his master’s thesis at the University of New Mexico School of Mining and Technology when he performed a number of experiments to determine the shapes human feet made in wet concrete. He used junior high school students to make standing, walking and running tracks.

#27, 12 year old girl

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He found that they are all different. Standing tracks typically leave little circles for toes at the end of the foot, similar to –3B in the Taylor Trail. Walking tracks show a great deal of variability, usually showing more elongated splayed toes. Running tracks are still different. They have elongated, splayed toes, a broad anterior section, narrow heel and often exhibit a raised center. In other words, they look like the Burdick Track. The tracks below were made by a 12 year old girl, two running toward the camera, then three running away.

#28, Tracks in Concrete

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The similarity between one of the tracks made by the twelve year old girl and the Burdick Track is amazing. It would strongly imply that the Burdick Track is a running track. In fact, from what we have learned about running tracks, we would now conclude that if the Burdick Track looked different, it would be wrong.

#29 Tracks in Concrete + # 30 Burdick Track

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We have demonstrated that the shape of Burdick Track is within the range of variation documented by the technical literature. However, experiments that reproduced the shape of the Burdick Track show that it conforms perfectly to the features of a footprint made by a running human. When we consider the deformation under the pressure points within the matrix, especially at the heel and great toe as expected, as well as typical load bearing structures where pressure is concentrated, we have demonstrated that the "carved" hypothesis is falsified. We have verified this is a real fossil footprint.

 

The Source?

One more objection remained. Where was the track excavated?

John Morris described what we knew about where the track was obtained originally.

[Clifford] Burdick purchased the man print from a Rev. Beddoe of Arizona. Beddoe had in turn purchased it years ago from the late Peesee Hudson, who had operated a knick-knack type store in Glen Rose. ...Tracing the print proved impossible, but it was purported to have come from a tributary of the Paluxy, south of Glen Rose. TRACKING THOSE INCREDIBLE DINOASURS, p.117.

Dr. Carl Baugh and I determined to find the source and conducted an extensive search. The trail was cold but many of the "old timers" were still around Glen Rose. We interviewed them and we were told what John had been told twenty years earlier. The track came from a tributary of the Paluxy, specifically, Cross Branch. It flows into the Paluxy about three mile south of town.

Eventually, we found that they were right. We spent several weeks searching and finally found the layer from which this track came. It is a rather unique layer; ivory-tan color; fine grained, virtually non-fossiliferous, somewhat mottled with rounded, marble sized crystalline calcite inclusions. It has the same grape-sized calcite inclusions found in the matrix of the Burdick track. These inclusions get smaller and disappear toward the river. In the opposite direction, they get larger, up to fist sized a mile upstream. We focused our search at the point where the size of these inclusions matched the Burdick Track. Cordell Van Huse produced a thin section from the layer at this point as well as a thin section from the matrix of the Burdick Track. Microscopic examination demonstrated that they were identical. The layer is located about 30 feet above the level of the branch. As erosion eats back into the bank, support for the layer is removed. Angular blocks of the layer break off and fall down to water level. In the picture below, the anterior portion of the Burdick track rests on the layer from which it originated.

#31, Burdick on source rock

We now know the source of the Burdick Track. It came from a layer about 30 feet above water level of Cross Branch, a tributary of the Paluxy River. It is a part of the Glen Rose Formation, Middle Cretaceous, supposedly 110 million years old.

Evidence that Dinosaurs and Humans co-existed

"Problematica"

 

 

 

 

In 1987 Jerry MacDonald discovered a wide variety of beautifully preserved fossil footprints in the Robledos Mountains of New Mexico. Rumors were heard about "out of place" fossils but the site remained top secret. Finally a tantalizing article appeared in the Smithonian Magazine, July, 1992. The article acknowledged "what paleontologists like to call, ‘problematica.’" It described what appeared to be large mammal and bird tracks that, "evolved long after the Permian period, yet these tracks are clearly Permian." With a little detective work and some luck we located the area and even more obvious "problematica."

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Close up of the spectacular "problematica."

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Large Cat Track found at Glen Rose

 

 

 

This cat track (9 inches across) was found in the same layer with the Burdick track, Middle Cretaceous, supposedly 110 million years old. Evolutionists, like Richard Dawkins, have acknowledged that finding a large mammal with the dinosaurs is just as devastating to evolutionary theory as finding humans.

Richard Dawkins, Oxford "If a single, well verified mammal skull were to turn up in 500 million year old rocks, our whole modern theory of evolution would be utterly destroyed. (The Blind Watchmaker, 1986, p.225)
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Naturally, evolutionists must explain this away, so they just say, " It is carved." They don’t need evidence. They know large mammals did not live with dinosaurs, so this cat track must be carved.

Creationists on the other hand, test their hypotheses. We cross-sectioned the track with a view to looking for the possibility of subsurface structures. If the structures within the rock were randomly truncated by the foot-shaped depression, carving would be indicated. If however, the structures conformed to the depression, then there would be clear indication that the track was not carved, but genuine.

This picture was photographed under black light to emphasize the detail of the internal structure of the rock.

Internals structures in the rock follow the depressed contour. This track is not carved, it is a large mammal track found with dinosaurs.

Please note who is "doing science," creationists or evolutionists?
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Official World Site Malachite Man
(Malachite is a green mineral)

Skeletons of ten perfectly modern humans have been excavated from fifty eight feet down in the Dakota Sandstone, over an area spanning about 50 by 100 feet. This formation is a member of the Lower Cretaceous, supposedly 140 million years old. It is known for its dinosaurs and is the same formation found at Dinosaur National Monument. At least four of the ten individuals are female. One is an infant. Some of the bones are articulated. Some are not, appearing to have been washed into place. No obvious tools or artifacts were found associated with the bones. The bulldozer driver who uncovered the first bones in 1971 expresses certainty that there were no tunnels or cracks in the extremely hard overlying layers of rock. The bones are partially replaced with malachite (a green mineral) and turquoise, thus appropriately named "Malachite Man".

(Click on photo for high resolution)

Malachite Man

The evidence appears obvious that these 10 men, woman and children, were buried rapidly by some catastrophe, like a flood. Articulated skeletons indicate rapid burial. Some propose to explain these bones by arguing that they were mining, when the mine collapsed. However there is no indication of tunnels, and woman and small children would not likely be included in a mining operation. Additionally, no tools have been found and there are no crushed bones which would be expected if the mine caved in. Another invalid explanation is that this is a mass grave and they were buried. This cannot be true because the living would have to dig a grave 50-100 feet deep through extremely hard sandstone layers. The modern mining operation was halted in the 1970's because the sandstone was so hard it was destroying the bulldozers. These humans appear to have been buried by the same catastrophe that buried dinosaurs in this continent spanning formation. Humans and dinosaurs must have lived at the same time!

 

 

Panoramic view of the two excavation sites. The location of 1971 excavation site is slightly below center horizontal line and about 1/6th in from the left. The location of the 1990 excavation site is dead center of the photo.

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The bull-dozer driver.

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The bull-dozer driver points out the original location of where he found the first bones of Malachite Man.

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Dr. Don Patton holding a human femur which has been replaced with malachite, found at the site. This brilliant green bone had just been excavated by Dr. Patton moments before this photograph was taken.

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This perfectly modern human jaw bone and teeth have been completely replaced by turquoise and was found at the site. Note also a top view of the same jaw below, showing detail of the teeth.

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1971 Excavation: These bones, from two different individuals, a male and a female, were among the first bones found at the site.

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1971 Excavation: A close up of these perfectly modern human bones.

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1990 Excavation: These human bones appear to be articulated, but are not. They seem to have been washed into place.

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1990 Excavation: These modern human bones are perfectly articulated, and include the pelvis, thigh bone, knee, shin bones, as well as a fully articulated delicate angle and foot bones. You can also see the second leg in the back ground still encased in the rock.

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Articulated Fossils:

Evidence of rapid fossilization.

An articulated fossil shows the bones of an animal together, connected in the rock as in life. To illustrate, when a cow dies on the open range, within a few weeks, the animal is fully decayed and the bones are scattered over a wide range of area by coyotes etc. Yet, even these individual bones rarely become fossils because small rodents and insects reduce them to powder. "Articulated" skeletons obviously indicate rapid burial.

"In other formations where articulated skeletons of large animals are preserved, the sediment must have covered them within a few days at the most." (Dunbar & Rogers, Principles Of Stratigraphy, p 128, Standard geology textbook used in universities)

 

 

Spectacular Ichthyosarus Skeleton

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Pregnant Ichthyosarus

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Fossilized Hammer:
Found in a formation famous for its dinosaurs, supposed to be 140 million years old (lower cretaceous).

Max Han was fishing with his family near London, TX when he found a rock with wood protruding from it. When the rock was cracked open, this octagonally shaped iron hammer was exposed.

 

 

The wood handle is partially coalifed with quartz and calcite crystalline inclusions. Tests performed at Battelle Laboratory document the hammer’s unusual metallurgy, 96% iron, 2.6% chlorine and .74% sulfur (no carbon). Density test indicate casting of exceptional quality. A unique coating of FeO, which does not readily form under present atmospheric conditions, appears to inhibit rusting.
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The enclosing rock contains Lower Cretaceous fossils. It is a concretionary sandstone nodule from the nearby cliff which is made up of concretionary sandstone nodules.

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The location where the hammer was found.
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This cliff is part of the Lower Cretaceous Edwards Plateau which evolutionists tell us was formed 140 million years ago, when dinosaurs roamed the earth. Of course, the coexistence of humans and dinosaurs would destroy evolutionary theory, so maybe the hammer was made by dinosaurs. Do you really think so?

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Fossilized Human Finger:
Found in a formation famous for its dinosaurs, supposed to be 110 million years old (Middle Cretaceous).

 

 

 

 

Some argued that it could not be a fossilized finger since pressure from overlying layers mashes fossils flat. This is usually true, but not in the Glen Rose Formation. Several locations reveal thousands of fossilized worms that are perfectly three dimensional. If anything should be mashed flat it would be worms, but they are not. Obviously, very rapid lithification is required in order to preserve such astonishing detail.
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Some who claim to be scientists will immediately say, "It’s just a rock." They "know" humans did not live with dinosaurs, so it can’t be a fossil finger, no matter how much it looks like a finger.

Science proceeds in a different manner. Real scientists perform experiments that will test their conclusions. We sectioned this fossil to see if any indication of interior structure was preserved which would allow us to determine whither this was a fossil finger or a strange looking rock.
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The fossil has been replaced with limestone. Sometimes replaced fossils maintain their interior structure. Sometimes they do not. Fortunately, when the fossil was sectioned, we were able to see obvious indications of bone and ligaments.
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Medical Doctor Dale Peterson of Oklahoma City, OK examined the sectioned specimen by means of x-ray, CT Scan and MRI. He was able to identify joints and to trace tendons throughout the length of the fossil. His expert conclusion is: "There can be no reasonable doubt that this is a fossil finger."
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Dale H. Peterson, M.D.

1050 E. 2nd, # 242
Edmond, OK 73034
Phone 405-340-8836
dpeterson1@mmcable.com
Fax 405-348-9564

March 27, 2002

Dennis Petersen
4345 Stevens Ct.
Placerville, CA 95667

 

Dear Dennis,

I was first able to view what I now believe to be a fossilized human finger shortly after it was excavated. At that time my comment was "interesting".

The fossil clearly had the shape of a human finger. It had a fine taper of the tip, typical of a female finger. Male fingers tend to be a bit more blunt. The fingernail and cuticle were clearly visible and perfectly formed and proportioned. Nevertheless, I withheld judgment as to its authenticity knowing that rocks such as limestone can assume nearly any shape when they flow into a hole before setting up.

Several years later I was privileged to view the fossil again after it had been sectioned. At that time I observed that the fossil was not of uniform or random density and coloration. The internal appearance of the fossil was identical to what one sees when a human finger is sectioned. The skin margins and subcutaneous tissue were clearly delineated. The bone matrix was clearly defined, and features consistent with flexor and extensor tendons were present.

CT scans of the fossil likewise revealed the anatomical features of a human finger, as noted above.

It is my professional opinion that the fossil unearthed at Glen Rose, Texas, is, in fact, a petrified human finger and not an infill of a wormhole or similar artifact.

Sincerely,

Dale H. Peterson, M.D.

 

 

Fossilized Hand Print
This fossil which corresponds perfectly to a human handprint shows astounding detail. Even the print of the thumb nail can be seen. It is found in the Glen Rose limestone which is designated as Middle Cretaceous, supposedly 110 million years old and contemporary with the dinosaurs!
(Click on photo for high resolution)

 

Since Dinosaurs and Humans co-existed...

 

What are the Implications?
According to leading evolutionists.

 

Evolutionary theory obliterated!


Richard Dawkins

Richard Dawkins, Oxford "alleged human bones in the Carboniferous coal deposits. If authenticated as human, these bones would blow the theory of evolution out of the water." (Free Inquiry, V.21, No.4, 10/11/2001)

Richard Dawkins, Oxford "...there are certain things about the fossil record that any evolutionist should expect to be true. We should be very surprised, for example, to find fossil humans appearing in the record before mammals are supposed to have evolved! If a single, well verified mammal skull were to turn up in 500 million year old rocks, our whole modern theory of evolution would be utterly destroyed. Incidentally, this is a sufficient answer to the canard, put about by creationist and their journalistic fellow travelers, that the whole theory of evolution is an 'unfalsifiable' tautology. Ironically, it is also the reason why creationist are so keen on the fake human footprints, which were carved during the depression to fool tourist, in the dinosaur beds of Texas," (The Blind Watchmaker, 1986, p.225)


Steven Stanley

Steven M. Stanley, Johns Hopkins University , "There is an infinite variety of ways in which, since 1859, the general concept of evolution might have been demolished. Consider the fossil record--a little known resource in Darwin's day. The unequivocal discovery of a fossil population of horses in Precambrian rocks would disprove evolution. More generally, any topsy-turvy sequence of fossils would force us to rethink our theory, yet not a single one has come to light. As Darwin recognized, a single geographic inconsistency would have nearly the same power of destruction." (The New Evolutionary Timetable, 1981, p.171)

NOVA TV Special, God, Darwin And The Dinosaurs, "...dinosaur footprints, side by side with humans. Finding them would counter evidence that humans evolved long after the dinosaurs became extinct and back up...[the] claim that all species, including man, were created at one time."


Ernst Mayr

Ernst Mayr, Harvard, "Creationists have stated that humans and dinosaurs were contemporaries in time...Were this momentous statement true the names of its discoverers would thunder down the corridors of time as individuals who made one of the most outstanding discoveries of the twentieth century." (Gish-Mayr Debate, Evansville, Indiana.)

 

Niles Eldridge, American Museum of Natural History., "We have been looking at the fossil record as a general test of the notion that life has evolved: to falsify that general idea, we would have to show that forms of life we considered more advanced appear earlier than the simpler forms." (Monkey Business, p.46, 1982)

Louis Jacobs, Southern Methodist University, Former President of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, "co-occurrence of men and dinosaurs. Such an association would dispel an Earth with vast antiquity. The entire history of creation, including the day of rest, could be accommodated in the seven biblical days of the Genesis myth. Evolution would be vanquished." (In Quest of the African Dinosaur, p.261)

Evidence that Dinosaurs and Humans co-existed

Evidence that Dinosaurs and Humans co-existed